chemistry-Acid, base and salts

(Make Social Orders like facebook likes,instagram followers,twitter followers, youtube subscribers, website traffic,backlink,etc on Order4Social - Promo still on)
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.


Acids and bases are terms that form part of our daily language.

They are substances that are part of our daily lives and are found in every where; in fruit juice,

our blood, cellular fluid, digestive juice, the food we eat, in the kitchen and in the laboratory.

Some of the acids and base that occur in nature include the hydrochloric acid

in the human digestive juice, acetic acid in vinegar,citric acid in lemon,

the amino acids of the protein in our body etc.

The known classes of acids are mineral acids (inorganic acid), e.g,

hydrochloric acid (HCL), nitric acid (HNO3), sulphuric acid (H2SO4)

and organic acids, e.g, acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid found in milk,

fatty acids found in fats and oil, etc.

They are examples of naturally occurring organic acids.

One of the areas where acids and bases are of immense application is in the soap and paper production industries where large quantities of NaOH are used daily.

Sulphuric acid is an important component in the manufacture of car battery,

while nitrate and phosphate salts are important component in the manufacture of car battery,

while nitrate and phosphate salts are important components in fertilizers.

The term salt is often referred to as sodium chloride (the common table salt),

a product from acid-base reaction that is used for food seasoning and preservation.

Salt is one of the products , apart from water that is formed when an acid is neutralized by a base.

Examples include sodium sulphate, potassium nitrate, calcium bisulphate,

ammonium chloride, sodium carbonate, etc.

A salt consists of a cation in ion-pair association

with and anion to give a compound with a zero net charge.

Properties of and acid

An acid in an aqueous medium will exhibit some or all of the following properties.

Some of these properties can be observed in non-aqueous medium also.

  1. It will have a sour taste. The sour taste of lemon is due to citric acid in it.
  2. An acid ionizes in solution to produce H+ ions.
  3. An aqueous solution of an acid that is totally or partially ionized will conduct electric current.
  4. It is corrosive to the skin.
  5. It can change the colour of a wet litmus paper from blue to red.
  6. It will liberate CO2 from carbonates e.g.

CaCO3(s) + 2HCL(aq) —–> CaCl2(aq) + H20(l) + CO2(g)

      7.  The non-oxidizing acids like HCL, will liberate H2

from metals that are above hydrogen in the reactivity series.

2HCL(aq) + Zn(s) ——-> ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

HNO3 is an oxidizing acid and does not liberate H2 from metals.

     8.  Acids react with metals oxides and hydroxides to form salts and water only.

This reaction is called neutralization.

HCL(aq) + NaOH(aq) —–> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Properties of base

Some examples of bases include sodium hydroxide (NaOH),

potassium hydroxide (KOH) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2).

Some oxides that possess basic properties include sodium oxide(Na2O), calcium oxide (CaO) etc.

In aqueous solutions a base will exhibit the following properties:

  1. It will have a bitter taste.
  2. A base ionizes in solution to produce OH ions.
  3. An aqueous solution of a base that is totally or partially ionized will conduct electric current.
  4. It is corrosive to the skin.
  5. It can change the colour of a wet litmus paper from red to blue.
  6. Bases react with acids to form salts and water only.

This reaction is called neutralization.

KOH(aq) + HNO3(aq) —-> KNO3(aq) + H2O(l)

    7. A base will present a soapy feeling when touched.

The Arrhenius Theory

The properties presented above for acids and bases formed the basis for the formulation

of the arrhenius theory about acid and bases in 1884 by Svante Arrhenius.

According to this theory an acid is defined as a substance that produces hydrogen ion

in an aqueous medium and a base is a substance that produces hydroxyl ion in an aqueous medium.

This theory adequately explains the reaction between mineral acids like HCl and H2SO4,

and bases such as NaOH and KOH. Thus, neutralization ,

according to Arrhenius theory can be defined as the reaction

between a proton H+ and a hydroxyl group OH to form water H2O.

H+(aq) + OH(aq) ——> H20(l)

Other studies have revealed that the proton H+ generated in solution in hydrated due to the attraction

between H+ and oxygen atom of the water molecule to form the hydronium ion H3O+.

The oxygen atom of the water molecule is partially negatively charged.

Hence, hydration reaction between H+ and H20 is,

H+(aq) + H2O(l) —-> H3O+(aq)

Acids under this classification are often referred to as protonic acids.

The relative strengths of some acids are presented on table below:

and HI is the strongest acid.

The strength of the acid decreases down the table and water is the weakest acid among the acids on the table.

Relative strengths of some acids

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Acid Name                                                                                  Formula

Hydroiodic acid                                                                                                     HI                                                          (strongest acid)

Perchloric acid                                                                                                      HCLO4                                                                                                                                                       

Hydrobromic acid                                                                                                 HBr                                            

Hydrochloric acid                                                                                                 HCl

Sulphuric acid                                                                                                        H2SO4

Chloric acid                                                                                                            HCLO

Nitric acid                                                                                                               HNO3

Hydrofluoric acid                                                                                                   HF

Nitrous acid                                                                                                            HNO2

Acetic acid                                                                                                               CH3COOH

Carbonic acid                                                                                                         H2CO3

Hydrosulphuric acid                                                                                                H2S

Water                                                                                                                           H20


The term amphoterism is used for the description of a substance

that is capable of reacting either as an acid or as as base.

Many metal oxides and hydroxides exhibit amphoteric properties e.g,

aluminium hydroxide.

Hydroiodic acid
 (strongest acid)
Perchloric acid
Hydrobromic acid

Hydrochloric acid

Sulphuric acid


Chloric acid
Hydrofluoric acid
Nitrous acid
Acetic acid
Carbonic Acid
Hydrosulphuric acid
Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
(Post free Ads and get calls at


  1. Wearable Technology

    September 3, 2018 at 2:17 pm

    You’re so cool! I do not believe I have read through anything like that before.
    So wonderful to discover another person with a few original thoughts on this issue.
    Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website
    is one thing that is required on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  2. Connected World

    September 2, 2018 at 7:58 pm

    I am extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your blog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this one today.

  3. music streaming

    September 2, 2018 at 11:27 am

    Hi to every body, it’s my first go to see of this weblog;
    this blog consists of amazing and in fact excellent material designed
    for readers.

  4. Wordpress Hacks

    August 13, 2018 at 3:13 am

    Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to mention that I have
    really loved surfing around your weblog posts.
    In any case I’ll be subscribing in your rss feed and I hope you write again very soon!

  5. Your questions answered

    August 12, 2018 at 8:12 am

    What’s Happening i’m new to this, I stumbled
    upon this I have discovered It positively useful and
    it has helped me out loads. I hope to give a contribution & assist other users like
    its helped me. Good job.

  6. Scott Thompson

    August 3, 2018 at 10:40 am

    Hi to all, how is the whole thing, I think every one is getting
    more from this web site, and your views are nice
    for new users.

  7. 블랙잭

    July 13, 2018 at 12:39 am

    Should you liked the movie series, you’ll completely adore the Rocky slot
    activity. So, even though it is still possible for the
    identical winning number to appear as winner again, the probability is not as
    good as numbers which have not won the sport before. 2 million lottery this
    year, which was the most important Powerball Jackpot within the state of Connecticut as well as the 12th biggest in Powerball

  8. donald trump

    June 26, 2018 at 10:23 pm

    The problem with these incidents in Pocatello andd also around the country, is that these charges usually cost citizens time off work for either a visit to prison, or time fighting the
    bogus charges in court, and more frequently thyan not these fees don’t take any legal jurisdiction to
    start with, but authorities have a golden ticket that they’re permitted to be ignorant
    of the law, despite that ignorance of the law iss no justification for taxpayers.

  9. male sex toys

    June 8, 2018 at 11:59 pm

    Hi, I check your blogs regularly. Your humoristic style is
    witty, keep up the good work!

  10. iPhone x case

    May 27, 2018 at 1:30 am

    I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s equally educative and engaging, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head.

    The problem is something which too few folks
    are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy I came across
    this in my search for something concerning this.

  11. Free Viagra

    May 22, 2018 at 10:34 pm

    You should take part in a contest for one of the greatest websites on the web.
    I’m going to recommend this web site!

  12. american muscle cars

    February 25, 2018 at 5:53 am

    Hi, I read your new stuff like every week.
    Your humoristic style is witty, keep up the good work!

    • jehusblog

      February 25, 2018 at 8:30 pm


  13. Margarette

    February 24, 2018 at 2:59 pm

    I like this site it’s a master piece! Glad I noticed this on google.

  14. better rear

    February 19, 2018 at 2:38 am

    I always was interested in this topic and stock still am, thank you for posting.

  15. Collagen Retinol Skin

    February 18, 2018 at 3:08 am

    After going over a few of the blog articles on your web site, I honestly appreciate your
    way of blogging. I added it to my bookmark website
    list and will be checking back soon. Please visit my website as well and let me know how you feel.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Most Popular

To Top